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Final Project

Proponents, Concepts, and Principles of Three Learning Theories:

Comparison and Contrast of Three Learning Theories: Description of Technology Activities Sharing How Each Reflects the Relevant Learning Theory:

References


Table of Learning Theories

How do Behaviorism, Cognition and Constructivism Differ?

Behaviorism

Cognitivism

Constructivism

What are the Results of each Theory? (Driscoll, 9)

Based on observable changes in behavior; focuses on a new behavioral pattern being repeated until it becomes automatic.

Based on thought process behind the behavior changes in behavior are observed, and used as indicators as to what is happening inside learners mind.

Based on the premise that we all construct our own perspective;

Focuses on preparing the learner to problem solve in ambiguous situation.

What are the Means of each Theory (Driscoll, 9)

Behavioral changes are measured and explained.

“The theory of behaviorism concentrates on the study of overt behaviors that can be observed and measured (Good & Brophy, 1990)” (Mergel, 1998)

Behaviorism finds out the behavioral changes needed to conduct the task, and then determine the learner objectives to reach those goals.

Behavioral changes are compiled, break into parts and then measured, explained and established.

Conduct a cognitive task analysis to determine the best sequence of mental operations, and then prescribe a sequence of learning activities that will enable the learners to reach the goals.

Changes are expressed through problem based and open-ended learning experience.

What are the Inputs of each Theory (Driscoll, 9)

Environmental conditions serve as discriminative stimuli, cueing which behavior is appropriate to perform (Driscoll, chapter 2).

Sensory information in the environment (Driscoll, chapter 3).

Ill-structured problems, information and technology resources to support problem-solving; ability to be self-directed or conditions to support becoming self-directed (Driscoll, chapter 11).

How does the Mind Acquire Knowledge (Driscoll, 12)

A predictable connection is established between a cue in the environment (stimulus), a behavior (response), and a consequence (reinforcement).

The learner adapts his behavior to contingencies of events and objectives.

The learner processes symbols and grasps the meaning of the symbols. He is able to distinguish between the knowledge of concepts and the knowledge of the procedural steps involved with those concepts. His knowledge is organized in his schema.

Reality is internally controlled. This puts the learner in control of what he learns and how he learn it. People create their own interpretation of objective reality, based on his schema.

List five Key Proponents of each theory, giving the name of his/her theory

(e.g. J. Lave, Situated Cognition)

A. Rescorla, Modern classical conditioning; B. F. Skinner, Operant Conditioning; E. L. Thorndike, The law of effect;

J.B. Watson, Radical Behaviorism; Pavlov, Classical Conditioning;

Gestalt, Theories of Perception ; J. Piaget, Cognitive Development in stages;
Higgins, Theory of Cognition and Emotion; Seligman's theory of learned helplessness;

Vygotsky, Proximal Development.

E. von Glasersfeld, radical constructivism; J. Bruner, Constructivism theory;

D. Jonassen, theory of constructivism; R. Spiro, theory of constructivism; D. Perkins, constructivism.

Role of Learner in each theory

Active in the environment, consequences that follow behavior determine whether it is repeated or not (Driscoll, chapter 2).

Attend to and process incoming information, relating it to what is already in memory (Driscoll, chapter 3).

Active constructor of knowledge, making meaning of the world surrounding him or her (Driscoll, chapter 11).

Role of Instructor in each theory

Identify learning goals; determine contingencies of reinforcement; implement program of behavior change; and negotiate all of these with the learner’s input (Driscoll, chapter 2).

Organize information, direct attention, enhance encoding and retrieval, provide practice opportunities, and help learners monitor their learning (Driscoll, chapter 3).

Provide complex and realistic learning environments that challenge learners to identify and solve problems. Supports learner’s efforts and encourage them to reflect n the process.

Provide complex and realistic learning environments that challenge learners to identify and solve problems (Driscoll, chapter 11).

Learning Outcomes in each theory

Observable behavior (Driscoll, chapter 2).

Declarative knowledge, procedural knowledge, memory (Driscoll, chapter 3).

Reasoning, critical thinking, understanding and use of knowledge, self-regulation, mindful reflection (Driscoll, chapter 11).


EDUC 8814 Rubric for Final Project [90 points]

Your final project can be presented any way you like preferably using educational technology. There are three critical components to your project:

  1. Demonstrate that you understand the concepts and principles of each of the three learning theories and the proponents of each using the criteria in the Table of Learning Theories you developed throughout the quarter; [30 points]
  2. Critically compare and contrast the three learning theories [30 points]
  3. Critically assess each theory for its usefulness in educational technology, using your technology activities as examples to explain how the model is relevant to educational technology. [30 points]

Additional points will be earned for scholarly presentation of your ideas, proper grammar and spelling, and the use of APA 5 th formatting in your references.

Exceeds Standards

Meets Standards

Does Not Meet Standards

I. Proponents, Concepts, and Principles of Three Learning Theories

Behaviorism Explained

10 points

Descriptions of this theory are accurate and insightful; demonstrate comprehension of the concepts and principles of the theory and 2 – 3 theorists, and draw from the items on the Table of Learning Theory developed this quarter.

The theory is described accurately; demonstrating comprehension of key theoretical concepts and at least one theorist; it is based on 80% of the items in the Table of Learning Theory developed this quarter

There are errors describing the theoretical concepts and/or principles; and/or the theorists are not described accurately

Cognitivism Explained

10 points

Descriptions of this theory are accurate and insightful; demonstrate comprehension of the concepts and principles of the theory and 2 – 3 theorists.

The theory is described accurately; demonstrating comprehension of key theoretical concepts and at least one theorist

There are errors describing the theoretical concepts and/or principles; and/or the theorists are not described accurately

Constructivism Explained

10 points

Descriptions of this theory are accurate and insightful; demonstrate comprehension of the concepts and principles of the theory and 2 – 3 theorists.

The theory is described accurately; demonstrating comprehension of key theoretical concepts and at least one theorist

There are errors describing the theoretical concepts and/or principles; and/or the theorists are not described accurately

II. Comparison and Contrast of Three Learning Theories

Comparison of Behaviorism, Cognitivism, & Constructivism

10 points

The three theories are compared in terms of at least three similarities including their use in educational technology

The three theories are compared in terms of at least two of their similarities, including their use in ed technology

The three theories are compared in terms of only one similarity, including their use in educational technology

Contrast of Behaviorism, Cognitivism, and Constructivism

10 points

The three theories are contrasted in terms of three differences including their use in educational technology

The three theories are contrasted in terms of their differences

The three theories are superficially contrasted

III. Description of Technology Activities Sharing How Each Reflects the Relevant Learning Theory

The Behaviorism activity is described to demonstrate how it uses technology to teach a concept using behaviorist strategies

10 points

Clear examples and descriptions from your behaviorism activity are included to explain behaviorism and its usefulness in educational technology.

Clear examples from the Behaviorism activity are included that demonstrate you understand how your lesson meets this theory

Examples from your behaviorism activity are inaccurate and/or you do not use them to demonstrate you understand the theory

The Cognitivist activity is described to demonstrate how it uses technology to teach a concept using cognitivist strategies

10 points

Clear examples and descriptions from your cognitivist activity are included to explain behaviorism and its usefulness in educational technology.

Clear examples from the cognitivist activity are included that demonstrate you understand how your lesson meets this theory

Examples from your cognitivist activity are inaccurate and/or you do not use them to demonstrate you understand the theory

The Constructivist Group Project is described to demonstrate how it uses technology to teach a concept using constructivist strategies

10 points

Clear examples and descriptions from your constructivist activity are included to explain behaviorism and its usefulness in educational technology.

Clear examples from the constructivist activity are included that demonstrate you understand how your lesson meets this theory

Examples from your constructivist activity are inaccurate and/or you do not use them to demonstrate you understand the theory

Miscellaneous Criteria

APA 5 th is used for citations

5 points

You provide four or more web references for each theory, and they are cited using proper APA 5 th formatting

You provide a minimum of three web references for each theory and they are cited using proper APA 5 th formatting

You provide fewer than three web references for each theory and/or they are not cited using proper APA 5 th formatting

Presentations of ideas is Clear Utilizing Educational Technology

The presentation of the theories is professional and demonstrates scholarship.

There are no grammatical or spelling errors

The presentation of the theories is professional and demonstrates doctoral level work.

There are no more than 5 grammatical or spelling errors

The presentation of the theories is at a master’s level

There are more than 5 grammatical or spelling errors

OR

Presentation of ideas is clear in a ten page paper.

5 points

TOTAL

/90 points

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